Monday, January 7, 2008

ABDULAZIZ (Abdul aziz)


Sultan Adulaziz I was born in 8th of February in 1830, in Istanbul. He is the son of Sultan Mahmud II and Pertevniyal Mother Sultana. Abdulaziz had a auburn complexion. He acceded the throne after his brother Sultan Abdulmecid I�s death, in 25th of June in 1861, he was 31 years old. Although he had reputation of his extravagancy he dressed up very simply. He was in his 9th year when his father had passed away. His brother, Sultan Abdulmecid I had taken care of his education. He learnt French, he was fond of music and poetry, he was a composer himself. He was a talented painter as well. He designed ships for the navy. He was a brilliant archer, hunter and a wrestler. He was physically strong and muscular.

REVOLT of KARADAG

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Karadag in the Balkans revolted against the Ottoman authority. Commander Omer Pasha repressed this revolt. In 8th of September, 1862 Istanbul Protocol was signed with the insists of France and Russia. With this protocol Belgrade was retained by the Ottomans but its province was given to Serbia.

JOURNEY to EGYPT

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Sultan Abdulaziz I decided to go to Egypt and departed from Istanbul in April 3, 1863 with a ship named �Feyz-i Cihan�. His nephews Murat, Abdulhamid, Mehmed Resad accompanied him. He was the first Ottoman Sultan went to Egypt since Sultan Selim I. The people of Egypt celebrated the arrival of sultan.

Abdulaziz renovated the regulations about Egypt, from then on the governors of Egypt were begun to be called as �Hidiv�.

ROMANIA CONFLICT

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According to the Treaty of Paris, Wallachia and Moldovia had accepted the superiority of the Ottoman Empire but they were free in their internal administrations. In 1862, in Bucharest the councils of two federations were united and they established Romania. The Council voted �no confidence� for the Prince of Romania and the problems increased. In 1866, Charles was declared the Prince.



KYRETE CONFLICT

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The problems in island of Kyrete were began in the 18th century and continued in 19th century. The Greek habitants of the island were revolted in the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire tried to solve the problem, but all the military and administrative solutions were failed. The Greeks rejected the Ottoman authority in the island they desired to be annexed to Greece (02.09.1866).

Grand Vizier Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha was sent to Kyrete, and in 6th of October in 1867, he declared a firman about the islands new administrative system. The civil administration was given to a governor appointed by the Sultan. For the military issues, the Ottoman commander was attended, two assistants were appointed to the governor, one is Muslim, the other is Christian. Except, the custom dues the island was immune from all the taxes. Both Turkish and Greek would be the legal language of the island. A mixed council would have been administrate agricultural, financial, commercial and industrial issues.

The LOSS of BELGRADE

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Following the Treaty of Paris, Serb enmity had risen and they begun to fight with the Muslim habitants in Belgrade. Due to the agreement signed in 1862, the castle was under Ottoman rule, and the Serbs took the castles of Sokod and Owitza. Serbs were favoured by the Europeans and they wanted to take the castle of Belgrade. The Ottoman government was not ready for a war and gave the castle to Serbs in the 10th of April, 1867.

The LOSS of BELGRADE

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Following the Treaty of Paris, Serb enmity had risen and they begun to fight with the Muslim habitants in Belgrade. Due to the agreement signed in 1862, the castle was under Ottoman rule, and the Serbs took the castles of Sokod and Owitza. Serbs were favoured by the Europeans and they wanted to take the castle of Belgrade. The Ottoman government was not ready for a war and gave the castle to Serbs in the 10th of April, 1867.

The REVOLTS BOSNIA - HERZEGOVINA and BULGARIA

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In 1875, a revolt was begun in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the European countries interfered and they pressured the Ottoman Government to reform the administrative system of the region. He reform packet was designed but postponed with Bulgarian revolt. The Europeans supported the Bulgarian revolt but they could not have confined in each other and the conflicts remained unsolved.

The REFORMS of SULTAN ABDULAZIZ

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Sultan Abdulaziz followed the reform movements begun in the period of Sultan Abdulmecid I. He organised a new administrative system for the Ottoman provinces. The Kadilik Kurumu (Judges of Islam) was put under control. On 1st of April, 1868 Sura-yi Devlet (Council of State), in 1870, Divan-i Muhasebat (Exchequer and Audit Department) were established. Moreover, education, transportation and financial issues were organised.

Sultan Abdulaziz modernised the Navy too. In 1875, in the Ottoman Navy, there were 21 battleships and 173 non-armoured ships. The naval forces had been emerged by, 50.000.000 marines, 700 officers, 173 higher ranked officers, 11 vice-admirals, 6 cor-admirals, and 3 admirals. In this manner the Ottoman Navy was the third navy of the world after, English and French navies.

Sultan Abdulaziz I reigned for 14 years, 11 months and five days. In the first years of his sultanate he supported the constitutional government but later his ideas were changed and he used force against the constitutional government sympathisers. At first, he sympathised the reformist writers and poets as Sinasi, Namik Kemal and Ziya Pasha but in the following years he exiled Namik Kemal to Cyprus. The supporters of a constitutional government effected the public opinion, Mithat Pasha incited the university students and they protest against the Sultan 0n 10th of May, 1876. In May, 30 Huseyin Avni Pasha and his soldiers raided the palace and dethroned the Sultan.

Four days after his dethroning, Sultan Abdulaziz had died. Although, it was said that he committed suicide by cutting his wrists, there are evidences about a possible murder (04.06.1876).

ARCHITECTURE

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As all the Ottoman sultans, Abdulaziz was fond monumental architecture. He had had built Harbiye (the War Academy) before his journey to Egypt. Aksaray Valide Mosque, Sadabad Mosque, Aziziye Mosque, Palace of Beylerbeyi and C─▒ragan Mosque were built in his period.

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