Monday, January 7, 2008

MURAD IV (Amurath IV)

Sultan Murad IV was born in June 26, 1612 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Ahmet I and his mother is Mahpeyker Kosem Sultana. His mother is Greek originated. Murad was a tall, huge man with a round face. He is one of the most powerful sultans of the Ottoman history. He was very good at archery. He was so intelligent, strong, courageous and energetic. He proved his strength in the wars he had taken place.

Murad was a very religious man and he called the Seyhulislam Yahya Efendi (Minister of Religious Affairs) as �father�. He had forbidden tobacco and alcohol. In his period to go out at nights was forbidden too. He had spoken Arabic and European languages. He was very fond of science and he encouraged the scientists for new inventions. For example; he supported Hazerfen Ahmet Celebi, who made first flight in the history by affixing wings. Ahmet Celebi flew from the Tower of Galata to Uskudar.

Sultan Murad followed closely the circumstances around and he interfered if necessary. During his first years he reigned under the guardianship of his mother, afterwards he ended the sovereignty of women in the palace and he punished the disloyal and deceitful viziers. He tried to solve the problems of the empire. He reigned for 17 years but he died at the age of 28 because of an illness.

His sovereign can be considered in two parts. He was ascended at the age of 11 and his mother Kosem Sultan ruled the country. Kosem Sultan and the viziers on her side had lynched Hafız Ahmet Pasha to the soldiers, in front of child sultan. This period was attended with great disasters. The peace and harmony in the Ottoman lands were completely lost and tyrants became the rulers of the cities. Murad took the authority in his adolescent and repressed all the tyrants, and he re-established the supremacy of Sultan. By prohibiting tobacco he assimilated the idles gathering in the taverns. He restored the judicial regulations by very strict punishments and even by many executions.



When Murad came to throne the Ottoman Empire was socially and economically declining. In Anatolia and Roumelia rebels were gaining power. There were riots all over the country. In this period Yusuf Pasha was governor of Egypt. But, another man wealthy and powerful Subası Bekir was dominating the region. He revolted and tried to take all the control, Abaza Mehmet Pasha also assisted him. Subası Bekir declared that he wanted to be the Governor of Egypt and the Ottoman Government has sent him a written command and appointed him as the government. However, at the beginning of his revolt he asked for a Saffavian assistance and the Saffavies sent him an army, as soon as Subası Bekir received the written command he sent the Saffavian forces back. Shah Abbas of Saffavies tried to take advantage of this confusion and captured Baghdad in 1624.

The war continued for seventeen years. During the first years of this war, Sultan Murad IV was a child, and Saffavies gained many successes. Sultan Murad IV firstly, repressed the revolts, restored the administrative regulations and concentrated on the Ottoman-Saffavi war. He decided to command the army himself and organised the raiders. On his way to Iran he visited the tomb of Mevlana in Konya. He marched through Revan with 100.000 soldiers. He recaptured Revan the Saffevian Army withdrew, the Ottoman forces advanced through the River Aras and taken back Tabriz, this was the sixth time Ottomans invaded Tabriz. But, winter was coming and the health of Sultan was not suitable for a further movement and the Ottoman Army returned to Istanbul. But, Saffavies had began new raids in the region.



After, Saffavies taken back Revan and continued their action in the Ottoman territories, Sultan Murad IV decided to organise a campaign to Baghdad. On the 198th day of his departure from Istanbul, he arrived Baghdad in November 16, 1638. He blockaded the castle of Baghdad for thirty days and battled courageously. He castle surrendered in the end.

The treaty of Kasr-i Sirin was signed, Azerbaycan and Revan were left to the Saffavies, the Ottomans took Baghdad and the Zagros Mountains were accepted as the border line between two countries.



The Ottoman-Saffavie war and interior problems caused new problem especially in Poland and Crimea. Political conflicts occurred in Crimea, in order to hinder these conflicts Sultan Murad IV ascended Can Giray to throne and restored Ottoman authority there. Poland had accepted the Ottoman supremacy and to pay annual taxes in 1630. But, they began not to pay taxes and Sultan Murad decided to declare a war against Poland. Polish King Vladislas asked for peace and the treaties between two countries were renovated.



Sultan Murad IV put emphasis on architecture and in his period many monuments were erected. Some of the are; Ok Meydanı Mosque, Bayram Pasha Dervish Lodge, Tomb, Fountain, Primary School, Konya Serefeddin Mosque.

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