Monday, January 7, 2008


Father : Yildirim Bayezid

Mother : Devlet Hatun

Date of Birth : 1389

Date of Death : 26 May 1421

Reign : 1413 - 1421

Mehmed I was born in Edirne in 1389. His father was Bayezid I and his mother was Devlet Sultan from Germiyanogullari. He was medium height, he had a round face, light complexion and a wide chest. He had a strong body. He was so energetic and brave. He was a very successful archer and wrestler. Mehmed had participated in 24 wars and he had more than 40 wounds. He was very good looking with his sarık (turban) on his head. He used to wear a caftan.

Mehmed treated equally to the Muslims and the Christians. He was a brilliant statesman and a politician. He completed his education in the Bursa Palace. Then he was appointed as the Governor of Amasya. During this duty he improved his skills in state administration.

Sultan Mehmed united all the clans in Anatolia, and he put an end to the period of Fetret (Interregnum), thus he was named as the second founder of the Ottoman Empire.

Sultan Mehmet Celebi had died in Edirne, in 1421. His death was hidden from the army and the people. He was the first sultan whom death was concealed. He was buried in the Yesil Turbe (Green Tomb) in Bursa.

His sons : Mustafa Celebi, Murad II, Ahmed, Yusuf, Mahmud.
His daughters : Fatma Sultana, Selcuk Sultana.

The Period of Fetret (INTERREGNUM)


After the Ankara Battle, the Turkish unity in Anatolia was desolved and the Ottoman Empire faced with the danger of destruction. The sons of Bayezid I had began a throne struggle after his death. Thus, the most chaotic interragnum had began in the Ottoman history. Because of the Byzantine intrigues and Timur�s destruction the civil war had begun among the shehzades. Suleyman Celebi in Edirne, Isa Celebi in Bursa, Mehmed Celebi in Amasya, and Musa in Balikesir declared their own sultanates.

Mehmed and Musa made an allience, and killed Isa. Mehmed knew that Suleyman must have been killed too. For this purpose, he sent Musa against Suleyman to Edirne. Musa had defeated his brother Suleyman and invaded Edirne, but did not keep his promise and declared himself as the sultan of Edirne. In 1413, Mehmed defeated Musa and he ended the interregnum.



Mehmed I restored the Turkish Unity and renewed the stable foundations of the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards, he declared himself as the sultan of the Ottoman State.

Unfortunately, during the Interragnum most of the territories in Anatolia were lost. Mehmed immediately began to make plans to take back those territories.

In 1414, he invaded Izmir from Aydinoglu Cuneyd. The states of Saruhan and Menteseoglu were annexed in to Ottoman territories. A campaign was arranged against the Karamanogullari who attacked Bursa. Karamanoglu Mehmed demanded forgiveness of the sultan, and Mehmed forgave him and gave permission to live in his own land. The State of Candarogullari, which was established during the Interregnum was annexed.



After all these victories, Mehmed returned to Roumelia. The Princedom of Wallacia was attacked and imposed to annual tax.

Next, Mehmed had improved the naval forces established in his father�s period and the first sea wars were done (1486).



After Mehmed had restored the unity in Anatolia and Roumelia, he struggled with two revolts. One was the revolt of Seyh Bedrettin, the other was the revolt of Duzmece Mustafa. Seyh Bedrettin was born in Simavna near Edirne and he was educated in the important scientific and cultural centres as Bursa, Konya, and Cairo.

Seyh Bedrettin and his friends Torlak Kemal and Borkluce Mustafa designed a tarikat (sect) in Iznik and they have began to provoke people with extremist islamic ideas. After a while, Seyh Bedrettin and his friends came to Deliosman and started a riot. In Izmir Borkluce Mustafa and in Manisa Torlak Kemal joined to the revolt. Mehmed sent his forces to Izmir and Manisa and repressed the revolt. Seyh Bedrettin was caught and after he judged by Kadi (Judge) of Serez, he was sentenced to death.



After the Battle of Ankara, Mustafa Celebi (known as Duzmece Mustafa) went to Samarkand with Timur. Following the death of Timur, Mustafa had returned to Anatolia. He was planning to ascend to the throne by dethroning Celebi Mehmet. He co-operated with the Prince of Wallachia and revolted in Salonica. Afterwards, he escaped to the Byzantine Empire but Celebi Mehmet gave money to Byzantine Empire and imprisoned him.



Mehmed I restored the Turkish unity in Anatolia and began to develop the country. He constructed medreses, hospices and many mosques. Amasya Bayezid Pasha Mosque, Merzifon Celebi Mehmed Sultan Medrese, Bursa Green Mosque, Dimetoka Celebi Mehmed Sultan Mosque, Old Mosque in Edirne and Edirne Yildirim (Thunderbolt) Mosque are some of them.

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