Monday, January 7, 2008


Sultan Murad III was born in Manisa, on 4th of July 1546. He was the son of Sultan Selim II and Afife Nur Banu Sultana who was Venetian originated.

He was a gracious ruler, he had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently. After, his father ascended he was appointed as the governor of Manisa. He took lessons from the famous scholars of Manisa. He was one of the most intelligent sultans of the empire. After, his father�s death he went to Istanbul and ascended the throne on 22nd December 1574. Like his father, he left the administration to Sokollu Mehmed Pasha.

Sultan Murad III led a life of pleasures, he never left Istanbul during his reign and he was very much influenced by the women in the palace. The woman dynasty emerged in his period continued in the following years. The mothers and wives of the sultans began to dominate the empire. He ascended the throne at the age of 29 and reigned for nearly 21 years. He died because of apoplexy on 15th January 1595.

With Sokollu Mehmed Pasha�s successful administrations, the Ottomans gained power. The territories extended to 19.902.000 km square. The relations with protestant Britain had been improved against a Catholic unity led by the Pope, and, later Holland joined the Ottoman-Britain alliance. First British capitulation was given and Britain sent a permanent ambassador to Istanbul.

Sons: Mehmed III, Selim Bayezid, Mustafa, Osman, Cihangir, Abdullah, Abdurrahman, Abdullah, Hasan, Ahmed, Yakub, Alemsah, Yusuf, Huseyin, Korkud, Ali, Ishak, Omer, Alauddin, Davud.
Daughters: Ayse, Fatma, Mihrimah, Fahriye.



The King of Poland Henry ascended the throne with assistance Sultan Selim II. The Sultan was intending to ally with Poland against their neighbour Austria.

The beneficial relations with France designed by Suleyman the Magnificent was continuing. Domination on Poland would give the Ottoman Empire superiority on Austria. However, the French King had died and Henry left the Polish throne, and was crowned king in France. Sultan Murad III intervened Poland again and favoured Bathary the Ruler of Transylvania to succeed the throne. The Sultan signed an agreement with Bathary and the security of the northern border of the empire was consolidated.



Until 1584 the Ottoman-Venetian relations were remained peaceful. But in this year, the Venetian navy commanded by Admiral Emmo attacked an Ottoman ship in Kefelonia. That Ottoman ship was bringing the corpses of the Governor of Trablusgarp Ramazan Pasha, his wife and his children killed in the Yeniceri Revolt.

The Venetians, killed 250 Ottoman naval cadets in this attack, raped women and thrown them into sea. The Ottoman council sent an ultimatum to the senate of Venice.

The Venetian Senate accepted the Ottoman ultimatum and executed admiral Emmo, sent the corpses of Ramazan Pasha, his wife and his children and the goods in the ship to the kadi of Preveze.

The Ottomans sent another ultimatum to Venice saying;

�The Venetian pyrites will never touch an Ottoman ship military or civilian. If happens a navy will be immediately sent against Venice.�

The Senate of Venice against the decisiveness of Sultan Murad III sent three ambassadors to Istanbul and tried to solve the conflict tranquilly.



The Ottoman-British trade relations were established in this period as Queen Elisabeth I sent two ambassadors to Istanbul and addressed Sultan Murad III as the �Great Turk�. The Sultan responded the Queen as; �We are not only an ally of the federation of England but also the protector of the Queen�.

The first English ambassador William Harborne entered the presence of Sultan Murad III in April 24, 1583 and presented gifts to him. Until this time Genoise, Venetian, Dubrovnic and French merchants had the right for trading in the Ottoman harbours due to the capitulation given in 1569. Elisabeth I was sent the ambassador in order to have a capitulation for merchandising in the Ottoman lands.

The countries without capitulation were entering the Ottoman seas with a French flag. But, the Ottoman Government estranged the Catholics following the blood-bath of St. Bartholomew in 1572. In order to break the war equipment embargo imposed by the Pope, the Ottomans designed firm relations with Protestant England. Consequently, English-French rivalry in the Mediterranean had began and the Ottoman Empire had benefited from this rivalry.



The Ottoman Empire captured whole Northern Africa except Morocco. When Murad III acceded the throne, a rivalry was going on for Morocco and the Moroccans were divided in to two as the Ottoman supporters and Portuguese supporters.

In 1578, the Moroccan Sultan invited the Ottomans to the land and the Ottoman forces led by Ramazan Pasha defeated the Portuguese army in Vadi-ul Sebil and annexed the Sultanate of Morocco in to Ottoman territories.



Shah Ismail the son of Shah Tahmasb, ignored the peace treaties singed with the Ottoman Empire. Some Emirates depended to the Ottoman Empire favoured Shah Ismail, and Sultan Murad commanded the Governor of Van to reconcile the peace in that region. The Governor of Luristan (Iran) took refuge to the Ottoman Empire and the relations with Iran had been ruined.

Meanwhile, Shah Ismail had died and throne rivalry was began. The Governor of Van, declared that, an attack to Iran should be made by benefiting from the disorder in Iran. Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was against the war but, Sinan Pasha and Lala Mustafa Pasha were desiring to command the army in the campaign.

The war was declared in spite of the oppositions of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha and the first stage of the war took 12 years between 1577 and 1589. Turkish troops commanded by Ozdemiroglu Osman Pasha, had defeated the Persian forces in Cildir and invaded the whole Georgia. Tiflis became an Ottoman federation in 1578, Sirvan was annexed into Ottoman territories in the same years.

Under these circumstances Iran requested a peace treaty. In March 21, 1590 the treaty of Ferhad Pasha was signed in Istanbul. According to this treaty; Kars, Tabriz, Gence, Sehrizur (Azerbaycan, Georgia, Northern Caucus, Daghestan) remained in Ottoman territories.



In 1590 a peace treaty was signed with Austria valid for nine years. In 1593, Telli Hasan Pasha attacked rebellious Uskuks and Emperor Rudolph II regarded this attack as a reason for war and he rejected to pay taxes by ignoring the peace treaty. Moreover, he incited Wallaciha and Moldavia to rebel against the Ottoman Empire.

Telli Hasan Pasha besieged the Castle of Siska in Croatia. At the end of very bloody collisions Hasan Pasha and his soldiers and the Governor of Herzegovina had died. As a result of these casualties the Ottoman government declared war against Austria.

After the wars fought between two armies, Austrian Army passed the River Tuna and attacked Ruscuk, they tyrannised the Muslim people there. When Sultan Murad III had died the war was continuing.



Sultan Murad III had had built new parts to the Palace of Topkapi. Famous architect Sinan built many masterpieces until his death. Some of the monuments commissioned to Sinan are; Azapkapi Sokollu Mosque, Izmit Pertev Pasha Mosque, Semsi Ahmed Pasha Mosque and School, Kilic Ali Pasha Mosque in Tophane, Muradiye Mosque in Manisa, Ivaz Efendi Mosque and Ramazan Efensi Mosque. Architect Sinan had died in 1588 and the monumental architecture had been declined.

In Sultan Murad III�s period, the Castle of Kars was built. The walls of Kabe-i Serif in Mecca were rebuilt by marble. The Toptası Asylum in Istanbul was constructed.

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