Monday, January 7, 2008


Sultan Bayezid was born in Dimetoka on 3rd December 1448. He was the son of Mehmet the Conqueror. His mother was Mukrime Hatun. Bayezid was a brave, religious and a calm man. His father Sultan Mehmet II was an admirer of science and he put great emphasis on his son�s education. As all the sehzades of the Ottoman Empire, Bayezid was also very well educated by the famous scholars of the period.

He was only seven when he was appointed as the Governor of Amasya a centre of culture and civilisation since The Seljuk Empire. This city was ideal for the education of an heir apperant.

Sultan Bayezid II was a very religious man and very fond of literature. He invited many famous poets to the palace. He was so gracious that he always helped the poor. He had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently, afterwards, he learnt Cagatay and Uygur dialects. Besides theology, he studied philosophy and mathematics. He left the throne on 24th April 1512 and passed away one month later.

His sons: Mahmud, Ahmed, Seyidsah, Selim, Mehmed, Korkud, Abdullah and Alimsah.
His daughters: Aynisah, Gevher, Muluk, Hatice, Selcuk and Huma



Cem was the younger brother of Sultan Bayezid. When Mehmet the Conqueror had died, Bayezid was the governor of Sivas, Tokat and Amasya, Cem ruled the province of Karaman and Konya.

Karamani Mehmet Pasha the last grand vizier of Sultan Mehmet II sent two messengers to both of the shehzades just after the death of Sultan. But the messenger sent to Cem had been caught on the way by Sinan Pasha the Anatolia Deputy. Cem could have learnt his father�s death four days later. The Yeniceris revolted and killed Karamani Mehmet Pasha as a result of this event. They enthroned Korkut the son of Bayezid as the regent (May,4 1481).

Prince Bayezid arrived Istanbul on 21st May 1481 and was declared Sultan. Cem on the other hand arrived Inegol on 27th May 1481 with his 4000 soldiers. Sultan Bayezid sent an army led by Ayas Pasha on Cem. On 28th May 1481 Cem had defeated Bayezid�s army and he declared himself Sultan of Anatolia and made his capital Bursa. He proposed division of the empire, with Bayezid ruling only Europe. Bayezid rejected the proposal, of course, defending the continued unity of the Ottoman State. He marched through Bursa and the decisive battle between the two took place near Yenisehir. Cem lost the battle and took refuge in the Mameluke State with his family. He went to Cairo.

In Cairo Cem has received a letter from his brother. In this letter, Beyazid offered Cem one million akces(Ottoman money) in order to dissuade from the throne. Cem rejected this offer and came to his homeland. On 27th May 1482 he besieged Konya. The Ottoman Army commanded by Sultan Bayezid went to Konya, Cem ended the siege and withdrew to Ankara. He was intending to go to Cairo again but all the ways had been kept by Bayezid. Meanwhile, Pierre d�Aubusson one of the Knights of Rhodes invited Cem to Rhodes.

On 29th June 1482 Cem went to Rhodes. He was planning to leave the island in a short time, and he made an agreement with the knights about his departure. But, the knights had deceived him and they did not permit him to depart from the island. Cem began to live a prisoner�s life in Rhodes. Eventually, this was very unfortunate for Cem himself and for the Ottoman Empire.

Afterwards, Cem was sent to France. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there.

Pope Innocent VIII intended to organise a new crusade using Cem. But, he could not had been successful as the other European countries rejected. He offered Cem to convert to Christianity. Cem of course rejected this offer. Afterwards, the Pope had taken more than 40.000 gold annual, from Bayezid for Cem�s expenses. The Ottoman Empire had stopped the campaigns as the Pope threatening them with Cem�s liberation.

After all these events, Cem Sultan had died in February 25, 1495. Sultan Bayezid declared national mourning for three days. He also tried to take Cem�s body from the Pope, but, four years later after Cem�s death his body was brought to the Ottoman lands. He was buried in Bursa.



The first step in Sultan Bayezid II�s policy was to advance in Roumelia. Bosnia was captured during Mehmet II�s period. But, Herzegovina could not have captured yet. He sent raiders to this region and they invaded in 1483. The castles of Kilia and Akkerman in Moldavia were captured and Moldavia was imposed taxes. In 1491, Hungary campaign was made. In May 1499, Greece Campaign was made.



In the period of Beyazid II, the Saffavies ruled by Shah Ismail, were dominating Iran. In 1501, Shah Ismail captured the city of Tabriz and he extended his power. Many Turkmen groups had accepted his authority. Shah became very effective especially in Iran and Azerbaycan. As he grew stronger, he became a threaten for the Ottoman Empire in the Eastern Anatolia. He sent many provocateurs to Anatolia in order to rebel the Ottoman subjects against the empire.

The Shah�s propaganda against the Ottoman Empire grew very effective that on 9th April 1511; in Hamideli an Ottoman called Shah Kulu (servant of Shah) had revolted. He was caught and executed but with his revolt the empire was driven in to a chaotic condition. The sehzades found their father�s policies very weak and they began a throne struggle among themselves.

The WAR with the VENETIANS


After the conquest of Istanbul, Venice had entered a period of economical decline. They left the Crusade Union after Mehmet the Conqueror gave them capitulation. They began to agitate the people of island of Morea as they always followed an anti-Ottoman policy. Sultan Beyazid II had decided to solve this problem by a war.

In 1499, Inebahtı, Moron, Koron and Navarino were captured. Afterwards, the Ottomans began to invade the Aegean Islands. The Venetians realised that it is impossible to defeat the Ottoman army and navy and they requested an agreement. The agreement was signed and lands captured by the Ottomans were given back to the Venetians.



Sultan Beyazid II had eight sons. But, five of them had premature deaths except; the oldest Ahmet, Korkut and the youngest Selim. Ahmet was the governor of Amasya, Korkut was ruling Manisa and Selim was the governor of Trabizon.

The statesmen were planing to dethrone Bayezid II and enthrone Ahmed. But the Yeniceris' favorite was Selim. Ahmed failed to win the throne struggle and the statesmen invited Korkut to the throne, but the Yeniceris rejected his sovereign.

Sultan Bayezid could have not resisted anymore, he invited his son Selim to Istanbul and left the throne in 1512. The Ottoman territories was 2.214.000 km2 when Bayezid was ascended and he left his son 2.375.000 km2 of land.



Sultan Bayezid II had had built many great monuments in Istanbul. In 1505, Istanbul Bayezid Mosque was completed, on 14th September 1509 Istanbul was destroyed by an earthquake and in 1510 the city was began to be restored.

Some monuments constructed in Bayezid II�s period are; Istanbul Davud Pasha Mosque, Hatuniyye Mosque in Tokat, Bayezid Medrese in Amasya, Bayezid Mosque in Edirne, Bayezid Medrese in Istanbul, Shehzade Mosque in Istanbul.

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