Monday, January 7, 2008

MURAD II (Amurath II)

Father : Celebi Mehmed

Mother : Emine Hatun

Date of Birth : 1402

Date of Death : 3 February 1451

Reign : 1421 - 1451

Murad II was born in 1402. His father was Mehmed I and his mother was Emine Sultana from the Dulkadirogullari State. He was a tall man with light complexion, he had a falcon nose and a beautiful face.

He spent his chilhood in Amasya and he ascended to the throne at the age of 19. He was a perfect orator. His greatest happiness in life was his excellent son Mehmed (Mehmet the Conqueror).

Murad II was essentially a man of peace and he prefered to lead a quiet life. But, he had wars and threats of wars thrust continually upon him. He was a very bold, energetic soldier and he ruled his country gloriously and honourably for 30 years. He won the love and respect of the Ottoman people for his spirit of honour and justice, his sincerity and simplicity.

His sons : Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Ahmed, Alaeddin, Orhan, Hasan, Ahmed.
His daughters : Sehzade and Fatma Sultana.



During the siege of Constantinople, Murad II informed that his brother Prince Mustafa (13 years old) revolted and besieged Bursa by provocation of the Byzantine Empire and encouragement of the Anatolian Turkish States. Thus, he left the siege and returned to Anatolia and quelled the rebellion. Prince Mustafa was caught and executed. Murad II found a permanent solution to the revolts of the Anatolian states by annexing them (Aydin, Mentese, Teke and Germian States).



Murad II campaigned to Serbia and he imposed the Serbian king to tax. He annexed Salonica, Macedonia, Teselya and Yanya . With these victories Albania accepted the supremecy of the Ottoman Sultan. Also the Ottoman forces were sent above the Prince of Wallacia Vlad who revolted and Princedom of Wallacia was annexed.

These successes of the Turks in the Balkans were threatining both the Byzantine Empire and the other European countries. To save their countries they have organised a new crusade against Sultan Murad II. With Prince of Transylvania Hunyadi Yanos� ambush 20.000 Turkish soldiers were killed. In addition, all the Turkish states under the Ottoman authority were libareted. The Ottoman Army was struggling with the revolts and attacks but they failed nearly in every war. This hopeless situation of the Ottoman Army was encouraging the Crusades. With �Battalion War� tactic, the Crusaders defeated the Ottoman army. This was the first Ottoman defeat in Roumelia.



The Crusaders grew stronger with the Ottoman withdrawals. The forces of Serbia, Wallacia, Transylvania and Hungary were advancing. They defeated the Ottomans in Nish and marched to Filibe. But, they were stopped by the severe colds.

The defeats in the Balkans led the Ottomans in a difficult situation. On the other hand Byzantine provocation was continuing. Under these circumcanses, the best solution was an agreement. Thus, Murad II made some connections, then on 12th June 1440 the Segedin Peace Treaty was signed. For providing a continual peace all the kings swore on the God's name. By this treaty the Ottomans have found some time for recovery. The Danube River was accepted as the first Ottoman border line.



Murad II left the throne after the treaty of Segedin and went to Manisa. 12 years old heir apperant Mehmed ascended to the throne. However, the state had confused. Moreover, in Europe a new Crusade had organised against this nearly infant sultan. Mehmed II wrote a letter to Sultan Murad II and invited him to the throne.

Mehmed�s famous letter:

If you are the sultan, you have to lead your country in this unfortunate situation. Please, come in front of your army. If I am the sultan, I remind you to obey my commands and I command: Come in front of your army.



Murad II had arrived Edirne quickly. The Ottoman army under his command advanced to Varna and attacked the Crusade and defeated them on 10th November 1444. This was the last Crusade organised to prevent Costantinople from a Turkish conquest. After the Battle of Varna all the compulsive conditions made the Turks sign the Treaty of Segedin had disappeared. For some time later, Sultan Murat left the throne again, but, with insists of the statesmen he had returned.



Four years after The Battle of Varna, the Hungarian King Jan Hunyard, invaded Serbia with his army composed of Hungarians, Wallacians, Polish, and Germans. He entered to the Ottoman territories and came to Kossovo. The first attack came from Jan Hunyard. On the 3rd day of the battle, the Ottomans defeated Jan Hunyard by a fake withdrawal (19th October 1448). With the 2nd Kossovo Battle the Balkans definitely became a Turkish homeland. The crusaders could never tempted to attack the Ottomans again.



During Murad�s reign many mosques, medreses, palaces, and bridges were built. Bursa Muradiye Mosque and Edirne Muradiye Mosque which were built with Kulliyes carries his own name. Also, Edirne, Gazi Mihal Mosque, Amasya, Yorguc Pasha Mosque, Filibe Sehabettin Pasha Mosque, Uskup Alaca Ishak Bey Mosque, Uskup Sultan Murad Mosque, Edirne Shah Melek Pasha Mosque, Edirne Beylerbeyi Mosque, and Karaca Bey Mosque were built in his reign. There were a medrese (university) and an imarethane (hospice) near the Edirne Mosque with three Serefes (Balcony) which were also built by Murad II. This mosque�s walls and altars were decorated with extremely beautiful tiles. Murad II also built the 170 shafted Uzun (long) Bridge, which was on the river of Ergene.

The great bridge in the town of Basikhisar near Ankara had been built in Sultan Murad�s period and he sent its income to Mecca. He had been sending pilgrims and private officers called Surre-i Humayun to the Kabe in Mecca for the restoration of the holy places. In his reign many books had been written and many foreign books had been translated into the Ottoman language.

Murad II was a poet and calligrapher himself. He used to use the pen name Muradi and wrote many poems.

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