Monday, January 7, 2008

MEHMED RESAD (Mohammed Resat)

Sultan Mehmed Resad was born in November 2, 1844 in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Abdulmecid and his mother is Gulcemal Kadın Efendi who was Caucasian originated. He spent his childhood near his father Sultan Abdulmecid and his education was taken care of him.

During the reign of his uncle Sultan Abdulaziz, Sultan Mehmet Resad lived an undisturbed life, but, in the period of his brother Sultan Abdulhamid II, he was imprisoned to the palace. As he was a crown prince he was always controlled. He spent this life of prison mostly in the Harem by reading books, especially poetry.

Sultan Mehmed Resad acceded the throne at the age of 65 by the support of the Committee of Union and Progress (Ittihat ve Terrakki Partisi). He was not neither included nor interested in the government administrations during Abdulhamid II�s period. During his sultanate, the important members of the the Committee of Union and Progress, Talat Pasha and Enver Pasha had administrated the empire.



Italy was late for the race of colonisation, while busy with restoring the interior conflicts. But the other European countries were occupying overseas. The Ottoman Empire was loosing power, and Italy was intending to occupy Trablusgarb in Northern Africa. With favour of other European Countries; Italy sent an ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire and commanded them to leave Trablusgarb. However, the Ottoman government rejected to leave this region and Italy occupied Trablusgarp and Bingazi in 1911.

Mustafa Kemal and Enver Bey went to Trablus and organised the Ottoman forces there. But, Italy attacked the Ottomans from the Dardanels and occupied the Twelve Islands. The Balkan Wars were started and an agreement was singed with Italy. According to Usi Peace Treaty, Italy retained Trablusgarb and Bingazi. The Twelve Islands were given to Italy to hinder a Greek attack.



After Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece won their liberation, they declared war to the Ottoman Empire to establish a Slav union in the Balkans. Ottoman Empire fourth in many front lines and in many of them the Ottoman army was defeated. The Bulgarian advanced through Catalca, the Greeks invaded Salonica and Albania declared liberation.



The Balkan States began to struggle, for the lands they took from the Ottoman Empire. Serbia and Greece declared war against Romania and Bulgaria. The Ottomans took advantige of this situation and declared war to Bulgaria, the Ottoman Army recapture historical city Edirne and advanced through the River Meric, but, the European Countries intervened and stopped the Ottomans. The Treaty of Istanbul was signed, the Turks retained Edirne and Kirklareli.



With the Revolution of Industry, in Europe rivalry for marketing had increased. The European countries began to search for new colonies and they established alliances among themselves. This rivalry caused the World War I and the Ottoman Empire entered the war with Germany. The war begun in July 28 1914 and ended in 1918, millions of people died, thousands of people crippled and the world entered a period of economical declined after this war.

The Ottoman Empire fought in many front lines. The Turkish troops defended the country most courageously, Gallipoli is one of the most significant defences in history. But, Sultan Mehmed Resad just prayed for his army and not involved in any struggle, at last he died of a hearth attack in 1918.

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