Monday, January 7, 2008

MURAD HUDAVENDIGAR (AMURATH I)


Father : Orhan Gazi

Mother : Nilufer Sultana

Date of Birth : 1326

Date of Death : 1389

Reign : 1359 - 1389

Territories : 500.000 km2


Murad I was born in Bursa, in 1326. His father was Orhan Gazi and his mother was Nilufer Hatun (Holofira) the daughter of a Christian Byzantine Prince. Murad I was a tall man with a round face and a big nose, he had a muscular body. He wore a cap with Mevlevi coins and a testar wrapped on it. He dressed up simple and he liked red and white cloths. He had his first education from his mother. Afterwards, he attended to Bursa Medrese (University) to complete his education and he lived with scientists, theologians and artists.

Murad I was a kind and a calm man. He admired the scientists and the artists. He was gracious to the poor and to the homeless. He was a genius soldier and a statesman. He acted very strictly planned and programmed all his life. Although he was considered as an infidel and an enemy of Christ by the Byzantine Church, he won love and respect of the people who lived in the lands he conquered as he never tyrannised them. Murad I began to be called as �Murad Hudavendigar� in 1382 (Hudavendigar means master in the Ottoman Turkish). Unfortunately, he was stabbed by the son-in-law of the Serbian King Lazar when he was walking through the battle fields after the first Kossovo Battle and he died (1389).

His sons : Yakub Celebi, Bayezid, Savci Bey, Ibrahim
His daughters : Nefise and Sultan Hatun


ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS

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First kazasker (Military judge) Candarli Kara Halil Pasha and first governor Lala Sahin Pasha were appointed by Murad I. Both were out of the ottoman family and for the first time non dynastic people were appointed to the important duties. Murad I legislated the Law of Timar. By this law, sipahi (cavalry soldiers) collected taxes to use in the times of war. They had organised military forces in their provinces. Until the 17th century with this legislation the Ottoman Army�s finance was solved without an extra effort. Also the law of Pencik that could be considered as the basic of the Yeniceri Corps was enacted (1361). By this law, the Christian children who were taken slaves from the conquered lands were taken to the Ottoman army and named as Devsirme.

Candarli Kara Halil and Kara Rustem Pashas introduced the first financial regulations to the Ottoman State in Murad�s sultanate.

All of Murad�s life had passed in the borders and in the battle fields. Murad I had always marched through to Anatolia from Roumelia, to Roumelia from Anatolia without resting or stopping. He commanded his army in all the battles. He acted in accordance with the commanders and the governors in his service.

Murad I conquered Eregli in the Black Sea, in 1360. He captured Ankara and Sultanonu from Ahis in 1361. In the same year he invaded Corlu, Kesan, Dimetoka, Pinarhisar, Babaeski, Luleburgaz and Gumulcine, Eski Zagra and Yenice province. All these victories were the results of Murat�s genius in politics, he always had good relations with the surrounding countries, but always acted tactfully.

Murad�s main target was to capture Edirne because of the city's strategic location. First, he invaded Edirne�s surrodings to hinder a Byzantine support. Next, the Turkish forces besieged the city under the command of Lala Sahin Pasha. The Greek and the Bulgarian armies had been defeated. The city hoped for a Byzantine aid but there was non, in the end they have surrendered (1362).


The BATTLE of DANUBE

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With the conquest of Edirne, the Turks began to advance in the Balkans. In 1363, Lala Sahin Pasha campained to Bulgaria and invaded Filibe, Commander Evrenos Bey captured Serez. Turkish clans sent to settle in the new lands. As the result of the conquests of Edirne and Filibe, Papa Urban V provoked a new crusade. The Crusade was emerged by Serbians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Bosnians and Wallachians. They had marched through Edirne. Ottoman Commander Haci Ilbey benefited from the crusaders� irregular advance along the valley of Maritsa and he divided his forces into three and made a sudden attack at night. With this plan he victoriously defeated the crusades(1364).

This victory was named as the War of Sirp Sindigi in the history and it defined the Turkish Sovereignty in Roumelia. The Ottoman forces went to Bulgaria next and conquered the upper part of Bulgaria. The Bulgarian King Yuvan Sisman accepted the Ottoman sovereignty and gave his sister Maria to Murad (1369).

Murad campaigned to Macedonia and with the victory of Crimea in 1371, Macedonia was annexed into the Ottoman territories. Serbian King Lazar, accepted the Ottoman sovereignty and was assigned to annual tax. The Turkish forces under Candarli Hayreddin Pasha�s command won the victories of Salonica (1374), Nis (1375), Istip, Manastir, and Pirlepe (1382). The Ottoman forces campaigned to Albania and to Bosnia-Herzegovina. In 1385, Ohri was conquered. In the same year the Battle of Savra had won in Albania. One year later Sofia was conquered.

In 1381, Sehzade Bayezid was married to Devlet Sultana the daughter of the Germiyan Monarch Suleyman Shah and Kutahya, Simav, Egrioz, and Tavsanli were given to the Ottomans as a wedding gift. In the same year the Hamidogullar─▒ sold six cities to the Ottomans. While the conquests in the Balkans were continuing, Murad went to Anatolia. In 1386, the first Ottoman � Karaman battle was fought in the Konya plain.


1st KOSSOVIA BATTLE

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The Turkish advance in the Balkans provoked a new crusade. The Ottoman army commanded by Vizier Candarli Ali Pasha defeated the Bulgarians and came across with the Crusaders in Kossovo. Even the most powerful crusade units were defeated by the cannons built by the command of Murat I. After this battle the Turks had proved their authority on the Balkans but Murad had died. Murad I was a very brilliant monarch. He extanded the state territories to 500.000 km2.


ARCHITECTURAL WORKS

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Murad I was interested in architecture besides the battles and conquests. In his period many mosques, medrese (university), imarethane (hospice) were built in Bursa. Bursa Hudaverdigar Mosque, Bursa Sehadet Mosque, Alibe Hudaverdigar Mosque and Gelibolu Hudaverdigar Mosque were some of these. Edirne Palace was built in his time as well. Many mescid (small mosques), Turkish baths, kervansarays (─▒nn), fountains, and bridges were erected. The tradition of giving salatu selam from minarets began in his reign.

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