Monday, January 7, 2008


Sultan Ahmed III was born on the 30th of December in 1673. His father is Mehmet IV and his mother is Emetullah Sultana. Sultan Ahmed is brother of Sultan Mustafa II. Ahmed was a tall man, he was a brunette with a falcon nose. He was so intelligent and gentile. He was very well educated by famous scholars.

Sultan Ahmed III acceded the throne after his brother Sultan Mustafa II�s death. He reigned in the Tulip Period, he was a poet and a calligrapher. He was interested in music, as well.

He followed the reforms and improvements in Europe closely. He brought print to the Ottoman Empire. He reigned for 27 years until the revolt of Patrona Halil. He left the throne in 1st of October, 1730.

Sultan Ahmed III tried to restore the undisciplined yeniceri corps, in his early sultanate. But, he was ineffective on the yeniceris as they favoured him for the throne. Sultan Ahmed, appointed Corlulu Ali Pasha to be his grand vizier. Corlulu Ali Pasha assisted him in administration, re-organised the financial issues and supported him against his rivals.

During the reign of Sultan Ahmed III, the tension between the Ottoman Empire and Russia had increased. The reason was, Russia�s policy of retain the Mediterranean by dominating all the Slavs.

Sons: Abdulhamid I, Mustafa III, Sulryman, Bayezid, Mehmed, Ibrahim, Numan, Selim, Ali, Isa, Murad, Seyfeddin, Abdulmecid, Abdulmelik.
Daughters: Emine, Rabia, Habibe, Zeyneb, Zubeyde, Esma, Hatice, Rukiye, Saliha, Atike, Reyhan, Esime, Ferdane, Nazife, Naile, Ayse, Fatma, Emetullah, Ummuselma, Sabiha.



Russia was planing to provoke all the Slavs in the Ottoman Empire and to recapture the lands, lost previously. Char Peter incited the Princes of Wallachia and Moldavia, and he defeated Charles of Sweden in the war of Poltova. Charles took refuge to the Ottoman Empire, and the Russian forces raided to the Ottoman lands, therefore, the Ottoman Empire declared war against Russia.

Baltaci Mehmed Pasha was attended to be the grand vizier and he marched through Wallachia with an army of 100.000 soldiers, meanwhile, the Ottoman Navy sailed through the Black Sea.

Char Peter wrote a letter to Moscow and explained his desperate situation, Tsarina Katherina I requested from the Ottoman Empire. Both the Khan of Crimea and the King of Sweden were insisting on the necessity of a war, but Baltaci Mehmed Pasha did not trust the yeniceri corps, and he was afraid of a new crusade and he accepted Tsarina�s request, in 21st July 1711. The Treaty of Prut was signed and the Castle of Azak was given back to the Ottomans. The Russians would have not intervene Charles� return to Sweden, and they would have not sent a permanent ambassador to Istanbul.

After this victory, the Ottoman government begun to plan recapture the island of Mora. The Venetian pyrites attacked the Ottoman trade ships and the people of Mora wanted Ottoman protection. As a result, the Ottomans declared war against the Venetians, in 8th of December 1714. Silahtar Ali Pasha defeated the Venetian Navy and captured Modon, Koron, and Navarino. He invaded the Island of Mora, in 22nd July 1715.



Austria declared that; the island of Mora should have been given back to the Venetians according to the treaty of Karlofca. Silahtar Ali Pasha marched through Hungary with his army. However, the Austrian army commanded by Prince Ogen defeated the Ottoman Army, in 5th of August 1716, Grand Vizier Silahtar Ali Pasha had died. In 18th August 1717, Belgrade was invaded by the Austrians. Damat Ibrahim Pasha replaced Silahtar Ali Pasha and he requested peace. The Treaty of Pasarofca was signed, and Upper Serbia, Belgrade and the plateau of Banat were given to Austria. Dalmatian shores, Bosnia and Albania were left to the Venetian Knights, and the island of Mora was given to the Ottoman Empire. (1st of June, 1718)

In 1724, in Iran throne struggles were going on, Russia tried to benefit from this chaos and attacked Iran. To protect Iran, the Ottoman Army took a campaign to Iran. After this war the treaty of Istanbul was signed; and Azerbaijan was left to the Ottoman Empire, Derbent, Bacu and Dagistan were given to Russia.



After the treaty of Pasarofca signed in 1718, the Ottoman Empire had entered a new phase, called the Tulip Period. The Tulip Period continued until the revolt of Patrona Halil. Sultan Ahmed III and grand vizier Damat Ibrahim Pasha traced a peace policy.

The Period of Tulip; appeared as a time of literary, cultural and artistic improvement. The technological improvements in Europe were followed. For the first time the Ottoman Empire sent temporary ambassadors to Europe and first print-house was established by Ibrahim Muteferrika and the son of the Paris Ambassador Sait Efendi (16th December 1727).

In Yalova, a cellulose factory was established. To control the fires in Istanbul a fire brigade was organised. In Istanbul, a textile factory was established and a tile manufacturer was opened. Many pavilions, palaces and tulip gardens were designed. Moreover, the oriental masterpieces were translated in Turkish.



A group was so restless, because of the luxurious life of the palace. They were against the life of pleasure led by Grand Vizier Damat Ibrahim Pasha. This group was provoking against the Sultan and palace as very bad news arrived from the Iran campaign. The yeniceris were restless, as well. The commander of 17th troop Patrona Halil and his company had rebelled, in 25th September 1730. The rebels started the riot from the Kasikcilar gate of the Bayezid Mosque. The tradesmen closed their shops and joined the revolt, they freed the prisoners and favoured by the yeniceris. The yeniceri commander Hasan Pasha attacked the rebels but he was failed to repress the riot.

Sultan Ahmed III, asked their aim and the rebels wanted Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha and other 37 statesmen. The leader of the Tulip Period Ibrahim Pasha and many statesmen were executed. The rebels destroyed the city and burnt the Sadabad Pavilion. Famous poet Nedim was killed in the revolt too.

At last the rebels asked for the sultan�s dethroning, and Sultan Ahmed III left the throne to his brother Mahmud, in 1st of October in 1730.



Sultan Ahmed III had a very refined soul and he worked with Ibrahim Pasha harmoniously. Sultan Ahmed established two libraries; one in the Palace of Topkapi, the other one is in Yeni Camii. He had had built a fountain in Ayasofya which is one the masterpieces of the Ottoman art. Beside these, Yeni Valide Mosque in Uskudar, Corlulu Ali Pasha Medrese (school), Damat Ibrahim Pasha Mosque and Complex, Hospice, the Fountain in Ortakoy were built in his period.

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