Monday, January 7, 2008

MEHMED IV (Mohammed IV)

Sultan Mehmet IV was born in January 2nd 1642, in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Ibrahim I and his mother is Turhan Hatice Sultana. Turhan Sultana was Russian originated. She had taken care of Mehmet�s education. Sultan Mehmet was a brilliant rider and a hunter. He was interested in literature.

Mehmet IV came to throne after his father�s murder in August 8, 1648. Sultan Mehmet was only seven when he was accessed.

He was a religious man. He prohibited alcohol, and closed the alcohol manufacturers. He had chosen his grand viziers from the family of Koprulu. Under the administration of Ahmed Koprulu the empire recovered from its depression. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire has reached its largest territories.

Sultan Mehmet IV had spent most his life with palace intrigues. After the Ottomans had been defeated in Vienna, the council dethroned him in November 8, 1687. Until his death he was imprisoned in his room with two concubines. He had died in Edirne, in 1693 and he was buried in Istanbul.

Sons: Mustafa II, Ahmed III, Beyazid
Daughters: Hatice, Safiye, Ummu Gulsum, Fatma.



When Sultan Mehmet IV came to throne, Canakkale Strait (Dardanels) was under the blockade of Venetians. The intrigues in the palace and Celali Revolt were going on. Kosem Sultana and her supporters were very powerful and they were very effective on the administration of the empire. Kosem Sultan decided to poison Sultan Mehmet and replace him with prince Suleyman. But, Turhan Sultana realised this plan, and Kosem Sultan was executed (September 3, 1651).



Tarhuncu Ahmet Pasha was appointed Grand Vizier in Sultan Mehmet IV�s period. Pasha was planning to re-establish the navy and to conquer the island of Kyrete he also devised a new budget. He tired to decrease the palace�s expenses. He also provided an annual budgetary. He was an honest and disciplined grand vizier but the palace intrigues caused his death, he was executed in 1653 because of rumours. With his death the corruption in the palace had increased.

Incapable people replaced Tarhuncu Pasha. The Yeniceris had revolted, the riots of Celali continued. Because of famine in the villages, the country people had immigrated to the cities, hunger and unemployment had occurred all around the country.



The alteration of the grand viziers was hindering the empire�s recovering. Meanwhile, everybody wanted to see Koprulu Mehmet Pasha as the grand vizier. He was offered to be the grand vizier but for the first time in the Ottoman history Mehmet Pasha laid down some conditions. First of his conditions was, the palace would be apart from the administration, secondly, if somebody would complained about him, his defence would be asked. Sultan Mehmet IV had accepted these conditions and Koprulu Mehmet Pasha came to be the grand vizier. He was a vigorous old man and he restored the tranquillity.

He restored the financial regulations, he recaptured the island of Limni, Bozcaada and Imros from the Venetians in 1657. He defeated the Russian Army in Konotop (1659) and he repressed the revolt of Erdel Prince Rakochi.

Anatolian Turkish States had liberated during the chaotic condition of the empire. Koprulu Pasha had attacked them, he restored unity violently as Murat IV previously did. He attended grand vizier for five years and he killed approximately 35.000.000 people.

He died in October, 31, 1661. His son, the greatest of all Turkish grand viziers Koprulu Ahmed Pasha held the viziership.

The Ottoman-Austrian War was continuing. Koprulu Ahmed Pasha raided to Austria he captured the castles of Uyvar (September 24, 1663) and Novigrad (November 4, 1663), and Austria wanted an agreement.

With the Vasvar Agreement(August 10, 1664), the Ottomans took the places they were invaded and Austria accepted to pay war compensation.



The treaty was signed with Poland in October, 18, 1672. Due to the treaty, the Ottomans took Podolya and Poland had accepted to pay taxes both to the Ottoman Empire and to the Prince of Crimea. But the Council of Poland rejected to pay these taxes, and the Ottoman Empire organised a campaign to Poland. This campaign took four years, many castles were captured0; although, Poland sent an ambassador and requested peace under condition of taking back Podolia and Ukraine, the Ottoman Empire rejected. Meanwhile, Koprulu Ahmed Pasha were taken ill and he returned to Edirne. Ibrahim Pasha replaced him and invaded 48 castles in a short period of time. Under these circumstances, Poland had accepted to apply the treaty of Bucas. Another treaty was signed in Zarawno in October 27, 1676 and Koprulu Ahmed Pasha had died three days after this treaty.



After the death of Koprulu Ahmed Pasha, Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha held the viziership in November 5, 1676. Hungary had revolted against Austria and wanted Ottoman authority again. Mustafa Pasha declared Emeric Thokely king to the central Hungry.

After, Emeric Thokely took the leadership of the Hungarians, he rebelled against the King of Austria Leopold I. Thokely asked for an Ottoman assistance and Mustafa Pasha had besieged Vienna in July 14, 1683.

The siege took 60 days. Mustafa Pasha was waiting for a fatal attack but the Pope sent the King of Poland to Vienna to defend the city.>

The Austrian and the Polish armies defeated the Ottoman army. The Ottomans withdrew through Belgrade. With the withdrawal of the Ottomans, Austrians entered Hungary, and invaded Vishgrad, Uyvar and Budapest.

This was the second siege of Vienna and the Ottomans failed to capture the city for the second time.

After, this defeat Sultan Mehmet IV was dethroned with the decision of council. Prince Suleyman replaced him in November 8, 1687.



Sultan Mehmed IV reigned for 39 years. The empire had reached its largest territories. Many monuments were erected in this period. Yeni Mosque and its complex began to be built 60 years ago, was completed. Between 1658-60 the fortress of Roumelia and Anatolia were repaired. The Egypt Market in Istanbul, the Palace of Hunkar, Koprulu builging complex, Safranbolu Koprulu Mehmet Pasha Mosque were built.

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