Monday, January 7, 2008

ABDULHAMID I (Abdul hamid I)

Sultan Abdulhamid I was born in 20th of March, 1725, in Istanbul. His father is Sultan Ahmed III and his mother is Rabia Semi Sultana. His mother had taken care of his education. He studied history. He learnt calligraphy. He was a gracious and religious ruler. He traced a reform policy. He followed the governmental administrations closely. He worked with brilliant statesmen.

When he came to throne, the army asked for gratuity, and the sultan claimed that; �there is no longer, gratuities in our treasury, all of our soldier sons should learn�.

Sultan Abdulhamid I firstly, involved in restoration of the military system. He established modern schools. He tried to renovate the yeniceri corps and the naval forces. He established a new artillery troop. He made a census in yeniceri corps. Halil Pasha was leading this reform movements. But, his opponents complaint Pasha to the sultan and he was executed.

Instead of all his failures, Sultan Abdulhamid I was regarded as the most gracious sultan of the Ottomans. He administrated the fire brigade during the fire in 1782, in Istanbul and he won the admiration of his people. He was so religious and gracious that, he was called as �Veli� (saint).

Sultan Abdulhamid I reigned for 15 years, 2 months, 17 days. He died in 1789, in his 64th year. He was buried in Bahcekapi, to the tomb, he had had built for himself.

His sons: Mustafa IV, Mahmud II, Murad, Nusret, Mehmed, Ahmed, Suleyman.
His daughters: Esma, Emine, Rabia, Saliha, Alimsah, Durusehvar, Fatma, Meliksah, Hibetullah Zekiye.



Sultan Abdulhamid I acceded the throne, while the Ottoman-Russian war was still continuing. The Ottoman government signed the treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca in order to end the war, in 21st of July, 1774. By this treaty, Crimea gained liberty. Russia gained legal right for trading in the Black Sea, moreover, Russia began to keep a navy in the Black Sea. The orthodox groups in the Balkans began to be protected by Russia. The Ottoman Empire had accepted to pay war compensation to Russia, and Russia had accepted to give back Wallachia, Moldavia, Beserabya, and the island in the Mediterranean Sea to the Ottomans. But, in these regions the Ottoman government would have forgiven all the criminals and would have not collected taxes. Immigration would be free.

Kucuk Kaynarca was the most repressive treaty that the Ottomans signed. Crimea was the first federation that the Ottoman Empire was completely lost. Turkish domination in the Black Sea had ruined. For the first time the Ottomans paid war compensation to another country. Russia were given capitulation, as well. Moreover, Russia had begun to interfere the Ottoman Empire�s internal issues.



With the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca, a permanent solution could not have been found for the Ottoman-Russian relations. Russia was intending to annex Crimea. The Ottoman Empire attended Selim Giray Khan as the monarch of Crimea, but the Russians favoured Sahin Giray Khan and a interior war was began in Crimea.

In order to hinder another Ottoman-Russian war, the protocol of Aynali Kavak was signed. Some articles of the treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca was renovated. The Russians would have to retreated their forces from Crimea, but the Ottomans would have accepted Sahin Giray as the Khan. But, the people of Crimea had revolted against Sahin Giray, because, he was favoured by Russia. Sahin Giray called the Russian Army to support him and Russia invaded Crimea in 9th of July in 1783.

The Ottoman Empire was restless about Russia�s invasion of Crimea. Meanwhile, Russia and Austria were making plans about sharing the Ottoman lands. As England was against a strong Russia, she provoke the Ottomans to declare a war. In 13th of August, 1787, the Ottoman government declared a war against Russia. Austria allied with Russia in this war.



The Ottoman Army invaded the Strait of Muhadiye. This strait was strategically located. Meanwhile, the Emperor of Austria Joseph marched through Sebes Strait with an army of 80.000.000 soldiers and 500 cannons. On 21st of September, 1788; the Ottomans won a great glory. The Ottoman army was divided in to two, as they had to war in two different fronts. One half of the army was fighting with Russia and the other half was battling against Austria. Russia besieged the castle of Ozi and killed 25.000.000 people (17.12.1788). As this sad news arrived Istanbul, Sultan Abdulhamid I had fallen ill and paralysed. But, until his death in April the 7th, 1789, he continued to rule the empire.



Sultan Abdulhamid was very fond of architecture. He had had built Sultan Abdulhamid I complex, Istanbul Beylerbeyi Mosque, Emirgan Fountain, Yahya Efendi Fountain in Haskoy, Gulsehir Kursunlu Mosque, Yozgat Ulu Mosque, Sebsafa Mosque in Unkapi and Karavezir Medrese (school).

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