Monday, January 7, 2008


Father : Murad Hudavendigar

Mother : Gulcicek Hatun

Date of Birth : 1360

Date of Death : 8 March 1403

Reign : 1389 - 1403

Bayezid was born in Edirne in 1360. His father was Murad I and his mother was Gulcicek Sultana. Bayezid had a round face, light complexion, ram nose, hazel eyes, blond hair, thick beard and large shoulders. Because of his bravery, he was called as �Yildirim�(thunderbolt).

He spent his childhood with his brothers in the Bursa Palace. He was educated by the famous scholars of the time. In his youth, he was appointed as the governor of Kutahya province. Due to Sultan Murad�s (Murad I) testament, he crowned in 1389 at the age of 29.

In Serbia, Stefan Lazaroevic son of the King Lazar crowned king. He came to Edirne for the peace treaty and he gave his sister to Bayezid and with this marriage, Ottoman � Serbian friendship was accomplished.

Unfortunately, Bayezid, was defeated in the Ankara War by Timur (the Mongolian Khan). Timur slaved him and Bayezid died in seven months twelve days. His sultanate took 13 very victorious years but ended very sadly.

His sons : Musa Celebi, Suleyman Celebi, Mustafa Celebi, Isa Celebi
His daughters : Fatma Sultana



In 1389, just after the conquest of Bulgaria and Bosnia, Bayezid had been informed that; in Anatolia a chaotic situation had been appeared. He signed open-treaties with the Balkan States immediately, and returned to Anatolia. With the death of Sultan Murad I the Anatolian Clans had began to co-operate each other to attack the Ottomans.

Karamanogullari Clan invaded Beysehir, and began to provoke Saruhan, Mentese, Aydin and Germiyan Clans. Bayezid arrived Anatolia with Serbian forces and one by one he captured the lands of the rebelling clans. Candaroglu Isfendiyar had accepted the supremecy of the Ottoman Sultan.



The son of Serbian Emperor, Manuel, who asisted Bayezid as an obedient vassal of the sultan during the Karaman campaign, went to Constantinople, without permission. On hearing this Bayezid thought that this journey should had have a secret aim. Therefore, he cancelled his Hungary campaign and decided to besiege Constantinople.

He besieged the city both from the land and the sea (1391). But the Ottomans could not have managed to breakthrough the massive walls of the city and the siege had turned out to be just a blockade. With the Hungarian raid to the Turkish lands, the siege was withdrew.

The Hungarians commanded by King Sigismund attacked the Ottoman territories from the north (1392). The Turkish raiders were sent against them. After the Danube-Wallachia campaign, Salonica and its province were annexed (1394). Bayezid besieged Constantinople for the second time in 1395, because he was informed that another Crusade was emerged against him, this siege was failed, too.



In Bayezid�s period many mosques, kulliyes (building complexes), medreses (university) were constructed. Timurtas Pasha Mosque, Mudurnu Yildirim Mosque, Bergama Ulu Mosque and Bursa Ulu Mosque are some of the important monuments that were constructed in his time.

Bayezid also had build the Anatolia Fortress in Istanbul, in 1396, it served as a step for the conquest of Constantinople. He built first Ottoman hospitals and clinics in Bursa as well. Bursa Medrese was built and Bursa had turned out to be a centre of science. Famous scholar Emir Buhari came to Bursa and he educated many students there.



As a result of the Ottoman victories in Roumelia and their advance through Bosnia and Albania, the Christian world had panicked. With Papa�s provocation the Hungarian King Sigismund commanded the Crusade composed of many European countries as France, England and Germany in May 1376.

The aim of this allience was to protect Constantinople, the city which had been under siege for five years. Crusaders besieged the Castle of Nigbolu located on the Danube's shore. The Ottoman commander Dogan defended the castle successfully until the Ottoman Army commanded by Sultan Bayezid had arrived. A very bloody battle had been fought (1396). Crusaders were defeated in the Battle of Nigbolu. At the end of the battle, the lands Crusaders had captured, had taken back by the Ottomans. Bulgarian Kingdom was ended and raids were organised through Hungary. After this victory the Crusades did not attack the Ottomans for fifty years. The Caliph of Abbasids called Bayezid as �The Sultan of Anatolia�.

After Nigbolu Battle, Constantinople was besieged for the third time. The Anadoluhisari (fortress located in Anatolian site of Istanbul) was built. However, lack of a powerful navy and huge cannons hindered the conquest. Therefore, Bayezid had begun to establish a powerful Ottoman Navy. He thought that Constantinople would have been surrender by the siege. But when the danger of Timur appeared, a treaty was signed with the Byzantine Empire and the siege was withdrew. By means of this treaty, a mosque in Sirkeci in Constantinople, an Islamic Court and a Turkish quarter were built.

In 1398, Karaman state and the Turkish states in the Black sea were conquered. One year later, Dulgadirogullari State was ended. Bayezid, also, battled against the Geneose Colony in Galata in Constantiople.



Timur the Mongolian Khan got in to action to re-establish the Chengiz Empire. He invaded Persia and marched through India. The Emirs of Azerbaycan and Baghdat asked favour from Bayezid and they escaped to the Ottoman lands. Timur required the return of his prisoners but he was refused by the Ottoman Sultan and the relations between two rival empires had been ruined.

As Timur's anger was rousen he decided to raid Anatolia and he invaded Sivas. This was his first conquest above the Ottomans but not the last. He continued his campaigns. His army was consisted of superior soldiers and he was undoubtly was a military genius. He came across with the Ottoman Army in the Cubuk plain in Ankara. In this war, Kara Tartars in the Ottoman Army co-operated with Timur and the Ottoman Army had been defeated. Timur enslaved Bayezid. (July 20 1402).

This battle caused a break off in the history of the Ottoman Empire for 50 years. The community of Turks in Anatolia scattered, the Turkish states come into being again and they gained power. Disorder, chaos and confusion appeared in the lands of the Ottomans. Four different Ottoman States were declared by sehzades in four different zones. Bursa, Iznik, and Izmit were plundered and fired by Timur and Izmir was captured. This period of confusion and disorder, full of throne struggles, called as the Period of Fetret in the history (Interregnum).

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