Monday, January 7, 2008

MUSTAFA II (Mustapha II)

Sultan Mustafa II was born on 6th February 1664, in Istanbul. His father was Sultan Mehmed IV and his mother was Emetullah Rabia Gulnus Sultana. His mother was from Crete. He had a strong science education. On the third day of his accession; he declared a programme (hatti humayun) explaining what he was going to do. In his writing he was telling �We have prohibited ourselves pleasure, delight and comfort�. The article that he had written to one of his viziers, was as fallow : �Power and treasury are not necessary for me. If required I can eat only bread. I sacrifice my body for my religion. I forbear every kind of trouble. Until my mission towards my nation finishes I do not return back the campaign. Of course I, myself take part in the campaign.�

His Sons: Mahmud I, Osman III, Ahmed III, Huseyin, Selim, Mehmet, Murad.
His Daughters: Ummugulsum, Ayse, Emetullah, Emine, Rukiye, Sofye, Zahide, Atike, Fatma, Zeyda, Zahide.



Three great campaigns were prepared in Sultan Mustafa II�s sultanate. But, the Ottoman Empire suddenly lost power with the defeat of Sente. Meanwhile, Venice attacked Mana and Dalmatia; Poland attacked Moldavia. Russia was ruled by Petro. He modernised the Russian army and began to make an effort to reach the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits and to dominate in the Black Sea. He was defeated on his attack, in 1695, but he captured the Azak Castle a year after (6th August 1696). At the end of the long lasting wars, the Ottoman Empire became tired. Sultan Mustafa II, accepted to sign a peace treaty, especially after the mediation of the English Government. According to this treaty, called �Treaty of Karlofca� (26th January 1699); apart from Bonot and Temesuar all Hungary and Wallachia was left to Austria, Ukraine and Podolia was left to Poland and the sides of Mone and Dalmatia were left to Venice. Karlofca Treaty is the first treaty that the Ottoman Empire lost its territories. The regression period of the Ottomans started after this dote. A year after another treaty was signed with Russia, the Istanbul Treaty in 14th July 1700, the Azak Castle was left to Russia.

It was 1703, and the regression of the Ottoman Empire was continuing. The Sultan seemed to forget what he said when he accessed the throne. Although he declared that he had prohibited himself pleasure and delight, he was joining hunting parties and he was going for hunting for months. He had left the state affairs to his grand viziers and to Feyzullah Efendi one of his teachers, whom he later appointed as the Seyhulislam (Minister of Islamic issues). This situation caused trouble among the soldiers in the army



Sultan Mustafa II settled in Edirne instead of Istanbul because of his interest in hunting. The army in Istanbul revolted against the indifference of the sultan and marched through Edirne. Sultan, organised the army in Edirne and blockade the roads, but the commanders of the Edirne army retreated as they did not want to kill their brothers. The rebels entered Edirne. Sultan Mustafa II was dethroned. His brother Ahmed was enthroned (22nd August 1703). Sultan Mustafa II did not live long after his dethronement. He died in 4 months and 8 days. His corpse was brought to Istanbul and buried in Turban Sultan Tomb, near the one of his father�s.



Architectural works done in the period of Sultan Mustafa II are :

SarachanebasiAmcazade Huseyin Pasha Kulliyesi (a collection of buildings of an institution), Mesrula Seaside House on the Anatolian Fortress, Millet (National) Library in Fatih and Erzurum Kursunlu Mosque.

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