Monday, January 7, 2008


Sultan Osman II was born on 3rd November 1604, in Istanbul. His father was Sultan Ahmed and his mother was Haseki Sultana who was Greek originated. Osman II was enthroned when he was 14 years old, following his uncle Mustafa's dethronment. His mother was very careful about his training. Sultan Osman had a strong education. He learned the eastern and the western languages as Arabic, Persian, Latin, Greek and Italian, fluently that he translated the classics. Osman II had a very handsome face, he was so clever, energetic, and bold.

Sultan Osman II married Sheikulislam Er�ad Efendi�s and Pertev Pasha�s daughters but it was untraditional since Sultan Mehmed II�s period. This manner of him was a great change because, since the sultanate Selim I, the sultans had not married outside the palace.

Osman II could have not found himself a grand vizier who could hold his plans. He was dethroned and murdered in the Yedikule Dungeons, he was buried near the tomb of his father Sultan Ahmed I, in the Sultan Ahmed Mosque.

Sultan Osman was a reformer, he reformed many governmental issues. He limited the authority of the seyhulislam (Minister of Islamic issues) as soon as he ascended the throne.


Sultan Osman was a writer and a poet. He wrote poems in Persian with Farisi pen name. The sultan who was murdered at a very young age revealed his sorrow in his poetry.

His sons: Omer, Mustafa

His daughters: Zeynep



When Sultan Osman II came to the throne Grand Vizier Halil Pasha was on Iran campaign. Although the Ottoman army was defeated in Pul-i Sikeste, Iranians wanted peace because of the possible Ottoman invasion to Erdebil city. In the Sera desert, the Sera Treaty was signed; between two countries based on the Nasuh Pasha Agreement signed before (26th September 1618).



The Ottoman fleet commanded by Halil Pasha went on campaign, in the summer of 1620. After leaving Istanbul, the fleet came to Navarino and sailed through the north, and then to the Adriatic. Two Italian ships were occupied in Dirac. The Ottoman navy landed on the Italian shores and occupied Manfredonia dominated by Spain.



There was a friendly relation between the Ottoman Empire and Poland. Dinyester River was forming the territory between two countries. Although a tension was emerged between the Ottoman Empire and Poland during the Ottoman-Austrian wars, peace was not violated. But, the Khan of Crimea who gained the cast of military union by the campaigns to Poland, was ignoring peace. Also, the Polish occupied the Hotin Castle that was dominated by Moldavia, and interfered the internal affairs of Moldavia (1617). Besides they continued to interfere in the internal affairs of Wallachia and Transilvania. Upon these events Sultan Osman decided to campaign Poland. Meanwhile, the forces commanded by Ozi Governor Iskender Pasha defeated the Polish army in Yas (20th September 1620).

Sultan Osman II marched through Poland, on April of 1621. Poland was trying to organise a stronger army. With Austria�s assistance they extended their army. The Ottoman Army came to the fore of Hotin on 2nd September 1620. The castle was besieged. In the battle the Polish army occupied the ottoman fronts and the yeniceris lost their courage and concentration. The Polish ambassadors declared that, they caused the war, and the Hotin Treaty was signed (20th September 1621). According to the treaty; the Polish and the Ottomans would not attack each other�s territories and Poland would give 40.000 coins to the Crimea Khan as it had been before.



Sultan Osman realised that, the war against Poland was lost as a result of the army�s the lack of concentration and courage. He decided to reform the military system. He started his reforms with the Kapikulu Corps. When he understood that the number of soldiers were less than the number of people that were registered in book of salary he stopped paying extra money. With this event an enmity between the soldiers had raised against the sultan.

Sultan Osman II was aware of all the abuses in the administrative system but, he was so inexperienced that he could not have guessed where to start. He wanted to establish a new army, composed by the soldiers of Anatolia, Egypt and Syria. At the same time he had ideas about reforms on the palace, harem and science organisations and he was planning to organise a new judicial system. The Kapikulu Corps were anxious about this situation and they did not spare themselves pointing out it. The educated class led by sheyulislam Es�ad Efendi was so silent.

The yeniceris learned that Sultan Osman had sent a secret will to the Halep, Erzurum, Sam and Egypt Governors in order to register new soldiers. The sultan wanted to go to Anatolia in order to collect soldiers. Meanwhile, a new of revolt led by Durzu Maanozlu Fahrettin was begun in Lebanon. Sultan Osman, told that he would go to Anatolia in order to press the revolt. But, the grand vizier Dilaver Pasha and sehyulislam Es�ad Efendi told him that �it is inconvenient for the great Sultan to go to Anatolia for an unimportant revolt� and tried to prevent him from going to Anatolia. Sultan Young Osman who realised that he had no other alternative declared that, he would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Since then, sultans never made pilgrimage, before. Grand Vizier Dilaver Pasha and Es�ad Efendi, tried to dissuade Sultan Young Osman from his plans. The governors of the cities that Sultan would have passed through were informed and ordered to restore the safety. 500 yeniceris and cavalry would given to the sultan and the others left in Istanbul in order to protect the city. The grand vizier, and many important officers and clerks would have joining the group going to Mecca.



A day before the setting up the sultan�s tent in Uskudar the yeniceris gathered in the Suleymaniye. The yeniceris rebelled and they attacked the palace and killed some state officials. Sultan Osman tried reconcile the yeniceris. But, they rejected his authority. They dethroned him and enthroned his brother Mustafa I for the second time. The rebels were not planing to kill the sultan. But the chiefs of the revolt knew that Osman was a powerful sultan and he would have been a danger in the future. They brought him to the Yedikule Dungeons and killed him there. Osman so bravely struggled against his eight executioners but he was strangled. His funeral was held in Sultan Ahmed Mosque the next day and he was buried in his father�s tomb in the same mosque. Sultan Osman�s murder caused many revolts in Anatolia. The Ottoman people never tolerated the murder of the sultan enthroned at the most beautiful days at his youth and always worked for the welfare of his nation. But his youth and inexperienced administrations, prepared him this horrible end.

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